S (yomimashou) wrote,
S
yomimashou

  • Mood:
  • Music:

Text dump tiems


accessor method: A method that accesses an object without changing it.
ACK: Acknowledgement message; the message sent from B to A when B correctly receives a packet.
actual parameter: The value supplied for a formal parameter in a method call.
address: A unique integer identifier associated with a memory cell.
algorithm: A well-ordered set of unambiguous, effectively computable instructions that, when executed, produces a result and halts in a finite amount of time.
API: Application Programming Interface; a code library for building programs.
argument: An actual parameter in a method call, or one of the values combined by a mathematical or logical operator.
Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU): The subsystem in the Von Neumann architecture that performs mathematical and logical operations.
ARQ Algorithm: Automatic repeat request algorithm; the basis for data link protocols in which A waits for an ACK from B and resends the message if it does not receive one.
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange; an 8-bit standard for representing text.
assembly language: A low-level programming language that uses op code mnemonics instead of machine language instructions.

binary: A base-2 numbering system.
bit: Binary digits; the two digits 0 and 1.
boolean: A type with two possible values, true and false.
boolean expression: An expression that evaluates to either true or false.
boolean operator: An operator applied to boolean values, such as AND, OR, and NOT.
byte: 8 bits.
bytecode: Low-level code found in class files created by a compiler.

cache memory: A small, high-speed memory unit where the items most likely to be needed are kept.
cast: Converting a value from one type to another.
Church-Turing Thesis: If there exists an algorithm for solving a symbolic manipulation problem, then there exists a Turing machine for solving that problem.
class: A programmer-defined data type.
compiler: A piece of system software that translates a high-level programming language into machine language.
computability: That which can be done by symbol manipulation algorithms.
computer network: Computers connected together for the purpose of exchanging resources and information.
computer science: The study of algorithms, including their formal and mathematical properties, their hardware realizations, their linguistic realizations, and their applications.
computing agent: An abstract concept representing any object capable of understanding and executing instructions.
constructor: A method that initializes a new object.
control unit: The subsystem in the Von Neumann architecture that fetches, decodes, and executes instructions from memory by issuing commands to the ALU, memory, and I/O controllers.

DASD: Direct access storage device; a type of mass storage device in which every unit of information has a unique address but the time needed to access it depends on its physical location and the current state of the device. Examples: hard disks, floppy disks, CDs, DVDs.
DNS: Domain Name System; the Internet application that converts from a host name to an IP address.

ethernet: The most widely used broadband link.
encapsulation: The hiding of the details of how a task is implemented.
explicit parameter: A parameter of a method other than the object on which it is invoked; the parameter(s) inside the parentheses.

flops: Floating-point operations per second; a measure of a computer's processing speed.
formal parameter: A variable in a method definition.

gigabyte: 2^30 bytes; approximately 1 billion bytes.

Halting Problem: Given any collection of Turing machine instructions together with any input, decide whether the Turing machine will halt.
HTTP: Hypertext transfer protocol; the most common format for information contained in Web pages.

I/0 buffer: Memory in the I/O controller.
I/O controller: A device whose responsibility is to handle the details of input/output and compensate for speed differences between I/O devices and the rest of the computer.
IDE: Integrated development environment; a programming environment that includes an editor, compiler, and debugger.
implicit parameter: The object on which a method is invoked.
interface (in Java): A type with no instance variables, only abstract methods and constants.
inheritance (in Java): The "is a" relationship between a more general superclass and a more specialized subclass.
initialize: Creating a variable and setting it to a value.
instance: A specific object whose type is a certain class.
instance variable: A variable defined in a class for which each object of that class has its own value.
instantiation: Construction of an object.
Internet Protocol: IP, the network layer in the Internet.
instruction register: A register in the control unit that holds a copy of the instruction to be executed.
instruction set: The set of all operations that can be executed by a processor.

kilobyte: 2^10 = 1024 bytes.

LAN: Local area network; a network that connects hardware devices such as computers, printers, and storage devices that are all in close proximity.
local variable: A variable whose scope is a block, i.e. one that lives inside a set of curly braces.
logic gate: An electronic device that takes a set of binary inputs and produces a binary output.
loop: A sequence of instructions that is executed repeatedly.

MAC: Medium access control; the protocols in the data link layer that determine how to proceed when multiple nodes want to send messages on a shared line at the same time.
machine language: Instructions that can be decoded and executed by the control unit.
mass storage: Devices that store information in a nonvolatile format.
megabyte: 2^20 bytes; approximately 1 million bytes.
memory: The functional unit of a computer that stores and retrieves the instructions and the data being executed.
Memory Address Register (MAR): The register that holds the address of the cell to be fetched or stored.
Memory Data Register (MDR): The register that holds the data value being fetched or stored.
method: A sequence of statements that had a name, may have formal parameters, and may return a value.
mutator method: A method that changes the state of an object.

object: An instance of a class.
object reference: A value that denotes the location of an object in memory, i.e. a variable whose type is a class.
object-oriented programming: Programming by designing objects, their properties, and their relationships.
op code: A code in machine language.
operating system: The piece of system software that waits for requests and activates other programs to service these requests.
overloading a method: Giving more than one meaning to a method name.
overriding a method: Redefining a method in a subclass.

parameter: A piece of information that is specified when a method is called.
parameter passing: Specifying expressions for the actual parameter values when calling a method.
portability: A property of high-level programming languages that means they are not machine specific.
primitive data type: boolean, char, or one of the 6 number types, byte, short, int, long, float, and double.
protocol: A mutually agreed upon set of rules, conventions, and agreements for the orderly exchange of information.
protocol stack: The hierarchy of separate, independent layers of protocols that govern the operation of the Internet.
pseudocode: English language constructs that resemble programming languages and are used to represent algorithms.

Random Access Memory: A memory unit with uniquely addressable cells that are the minimum unit of access and can all be reached in an equal amount of time.
register: The components of memory used to implements the fetch and store operations.

SASD: Sequential access storage device; a storage device that does not require all units of data be identifiable by unique addresses. Instead, it searches for data sequentially.
scope: The part of a program in which a variable is defined.
software: The stored programs used by a computer.
static variable: A variable defined in a class that has only one value for the whole class, which can be accessed and changed by any method of that class.
static method: A method with no implicit parameter.
stored program concept: You can store programs in the same way as you store data.
syntax: Rules that define how to form instructions in a particular programming language.

terabyte: 2^40 bytes; approximately 1 trillion bytes.
time complexity: A function relating the input size to the number of steps required to complete an algorithm.
transistor: A solid-state device that switches between an ON state and an OFF state electronically.
TCP: Transport Control Protocol; the primary transport protocol on the Internet, which creates an error-free link between any two nodes in a network.
truth table: A table showing all the possible inputs to a boolean expression and the corresponding outputs.
Turing machine: A model of a computing agent consisting of an infinitely long tape divided into cells, a finite alphabet, a finite set of states, and a set of instructions.

Von Neumann architecture: The theoretical model of a computer system that nearly all modern computers are organized by, based on three main concepts: Four major subsystems (memory, input/output, ALU, and control unit), the stored program concept, and sequential execution of instructions.

white space: Space, tab, and newline characters.
WAN: Wide are network; a network that connects devices that are not in close proximity.
Subscribe
  • Post a new comment

    Error

    default userpic

    Your reply will be screened

    When you submit the form an invisible reCAPTCHA check will be performed.
    You must follow the Privacy Policy and Google Terms of use.
  • 6 comments